Introduction to Financial Statements
Financial statements are used by companies and other organizations to report their financial performance and position. They provide a snapshot of income, expenses, assets, liabilities, and equity at a point in time. As such, they are an excellent tool for understanding the financial health of a business.
For non-accountants, understanding financial statements can be intimidating. After all, these documents are filled with numbers and accounting terms. However, it is not as difficult as it may first appear. By taking the time to understand how each of the financial statements works, non-accountants can get a better understanding of the overall financial performance of any organization.
Furthermore, being able to interpret financial statements is a valuable skill for anyone involved in business. Having a good understanding of a company’s financial position can help inform decisions and ensure that any action taken is done with full knowledge of the situation.
This guide will cover the four main types of financial statements: the Balance Sheet, Income Statement, Cash Flow Statement, and Statement of Shareholder Equity. Each will be discussed in detail, providing insight into how best to read and interpret each statement.
Overview of the Four Types of Financial Statements
Financial statements are essential documents for any business or organization, providing a snapshot of the financial state of the company. Knowing how to read these statements will help non-accountants make more informed decisions about their investments, lending, and business partnerships. This guide will provide an overview of the four types of financial statements – Balance Sheet, Income Statement, Cash Flow Statement, and Statement of Shareholder Equity.
A Balance Sheet is a quick snapshot of the financial state of a business at a specific point in time, usually at the close of a business day or the end of a quarter. It consists of two sides: Assets and Liabilities. The assets are resources owned or controlled by the business. These can be tangible, such as cash, inventory, and property, or intangible such as goodwill, patents, and copyrights. Liabilities represent all the money that the business owes, including short-term debt, long-term debt, and accounts payable. The difference between the assets and liabilities is called equity, which represents the owners’ claim to the business.
An Income Statement records a company’s sales, expenses, and profits over a period of time. It starts with total sales minus total expenses to show a company’s net income (or net loss). This is the main way to assess the profitability of a company during a specific timeframe. It includes two categories of costs: operating expenses (costs related to day-to-day operations) and non-operating expenses (costs related to non-regular activities). By understanding the income statement, you can judge whether or not the company is making a profit.
Cash Flow Statement
The Cash Flow Statement is used to track the flow of funds in and out of the business. It breaks down the inflows and outflows of cash into three categories: Operating Activities, Investing Activities, and Financing Activities. Operating Activities involve regular business operations such as selling goods and services, paying employees, and purchasing inventory. Investing Activities involve secondary investments, such as stocks, bonds, and real estate. Financing Activities include borrowing money or issuing stock, and paying dividends.
Statement of Shareholder Equity
The Statement of Shareholder Equity (also known as the Statement of Retained Earnings) is a financial statement that shows the increase or decrease in a company’s retained earnings from the beginning of the period to the end of the period. It tracks the company’s earnings that are reinvested in the company instead of paid out to shareholders. The statement shows how much money shareholders have invested in the company, and it must be accurate in order to ensure that shareholders are fairly compensated.
What is a Balance Sheet and How Do Assets, Liabilities and Equities Relate to Each Other?
A balance sheet is one of the four main types of financial statements used by businesses. It provides an overview of a company’s financial health by showing the amount and value of its assets, liabilities, and equities. All these elements must be in balance for the business to remain solvent.
Assets are any resources owned by the company. These can be tangible (physical) or intangible (non-physical). Examples of assets are cash, inventory, land, buildings, machinery, and accounts receivable. Assets provide the company with future economic benefits.
Liabilities are any debts a company owes to other parties. Liabilities also include any outstanding loans, Taxes payable, salaries and wages, and any trade payables. All liabilities must be paid back.
Equity refers to the ownership of the business. It includes common stock, retained earnings, and treasury stock. Equity is different from assets in that it represents ownership of a company and not just its resources.
The balance sheet must always remain balanced. This means that all assets must equal the sum of Liabilities plus Equity. The formula is as follows: Assets = Liabilities + Equity
Understanding Income Statements
Income statements are one of the four essential financial statements used to measure a business’s performance. It covers a period of time, such as a quarter or year, and describes the revenues and expenses of the company.
Revenues are income sources such as sales, rents, interest, and any other positive cash flow that the company receives. Expenses are the costs incurred in generating those revenues. These include the cost of goods sold, wages and salaries, maintenance, taxes, and any other costs associated with running the business.
Income statements can be used to measure the company’s progress in terms of revenue, expenses, and overall profitability. To understand an income statement, start by looking at the top line item, which is usually “sales revenue.” This number should be compared to the same period in the previous year to measure progress.
The second line item on an income statement is usually “cost of goods sold.” This number shows how much of the revenue is spent on the materials needed to produce the products or services that were sold. The remaining amount, or gross profit, shows what the company has earned after covering the cost of goods sold.
The next line items on an income statement will be the various expenses incurred in running the business. These include wages and salaries, property tax, advertising, and other operating expenses. Add these items together to get the total operating expenses. Subtract this number from the gross profit figure to get the operating income.
- Finally, subtract any non-operating expenses, such as interest, investments, or taxes, and you’ll arrive at the net profit or net loss.
- To better understand income statements, example ones can be reviewed. Most annual reports include examples of income statements, as do most accounting textbooks.
Understanding the Cash Flow Statement
The Cash Flow statement is an important financial statement that tracks the cash inflows and outflows within a business. This statement is broken down into 3 categories – Operating Activities, Investing Activities, and Financing Activities.
Operating activities are everything involved with day-to-day operations of the business such as sales, expenses, and wages. They show the inflow and outflow of cash from these activities throughout the accounting period.
Investment activities are generally large purchases of infrastructure, equipment, or real estate that the business will use for a period of time. It can also involve the sale of investments to generate revenue. This section shows all the cash that has been either invested or withdrawn from investments during the reporting period.
Financing activities are related to the way a company raises money and the repayment of debt. It can include the issuing of stocks, taking out loans, and paying back creditors. It also includes activities such as the declaration of dividends.
How to Read the Cash Flow Statement
The Cash Flow statement is read in the same way as other financial statements. A basic cash flow statement can be read by identifying the type of activity that is being reported in each row (operating, investing, financing), then looking at the amount of cash coming in or going out as a result of the activity. An example of a cash flow statement is included below:
- Cash Inflows: Operating Activities (sales) – $60,000
- Cash Outflows: Operating Activities (wages) – $15,000
- Cash Inflows: Investing Activities (sale of investments) – $20,000
- Cash Outflows: Financing Activities (dividends paid) – $10,000
- Net Cash In/Out: $65,000
In this example, we can see that there was a net cash inflow of $65,000. This means that for the reporting period, the company was able to generate more cash than it was spending.
Statement of Shareholder Equity
The Statement of Shareholder Equity is a financial document that outlines the investments of shareholders into a company. It shows the total amount of funds invested by the shareholders, and how much money they have claimed from the company in distributions like dividends.
By reading the Statement of Shareholder Equity, you can see how much money has been put into and taken out of the company. This can be useful for understanding the overall health of the company and determining the rate of return for shareholders.
The statement is divided into two sections: Capital Stock and Retained Earnings. Capital Stock shows the amount of capital stock issued by the company, as well as any stock splits or consolidations. Retained Earnings shows how much of the net earnings for the period have been reinvested into the company.
To read the Statement of Shareholder Equity, start by looking at the beginning balance at the start of the period, which is usually the amount invested by the shareholders. Then look at the ending balance at the end of the period, which is usually the amount of funds taken out of the company by the shareholders in the form of dividends.
You can use this information to calculate the rate of return for shareholders. Divide the amount of dividends by the amount of investment to get the rate of return. For example, if a shareholder invested $100 and received $50 in dividends for the period, the rate of return would be 50%.
Understanding the Statement of Shareholder Equity can be an important way for non-accountants to assess the financial health of a company. By monitoring this document regularly, it is possible to track the progress of a company over time.
Understanding financial statements can be daunting, especially for those without a background in accounting. The purpose of this guide is to provide a solid foundation for non-accountants to understand the four main types of financial statements: the balance sheet, the income statement, the cash flow statement, and the statement of shareholder equity.
Summary of Key Points & Q&A
Financial statements are documents that present a company’s financial health and performance, providing an overview of the company’s current cash position, liabilities, and equities. A balance sheet is a statement of a company’s assets (what it owns) liabilities (what it owes) and equity (the difference between assets and liabilities). An income statement shows how much profit or loss the company has made and where the money came from and went. The cash flow statement reports on the company’s inflows and outflows of cash over a certain period of time and provides insights into the company’s liquidity. Lastly, the statement of shareholder equity outlines the ownership of the company, including the type and number of shares issued and outstanding.
It is important for non-accountants to understand financial statements in order to make informed decisions about investments and assess the financial health of companies. This guide provides a comprehensive overview of financial statements and their components, as well as examples and tips to help non-accountants easily understand them.
In summary, understanding financial statements is an important skill for any non-accountant. Financial statements provide a clear picture of a company’s financial health and performance, which can help non-accountants make more informed decisions when evaluating potential investments. We hope this guide has provided a comprehensive overview of the four main types of financial statements and their components, as well as some tips to help non-accountants effectively analyze them.
Understanding financial statements can be difficult for non-accountants, but with some basic knowledge and understanding of the different financial statements and their components, any person can begin to make sense of a business’s financial position. In this guide we have explored the four major forms of financial statements including the Balance Sheet, Income Statement, Cash Flow Statement, and Statement of Shareholder Equity. We have examined the definition of each component of each statement and how each statement is connected to one another. With this knowledge, anyone can begin to read and interpret financial statements, so that they can gain insight into the overall financial health of a business.
To summarise, we have learnt that financial statements are an essential tool for non-accountants to understand a business’s financial position. We have looked at the four main types of financial statements which include:
- Balance Sheet: which provides an overview of a company’s assets, liabilities, and equities.
- Income Statement: which outlines revenues and expenses.
- Cash Flow Statement: which tracks operating activities, investing activities, and financing activities.
- Statement of Shareholder Equity: which records shareholder investments.
By understanding the components of each of these statements, non-accountants will be able to start reading financial statements to gain insight into a business’s finances.
We hope that this guide has been able to shed some light on the topic of financial statements, making them less confusing and daunting to those who are unfamiliar with them.